This Task focuses on the complexities of human energy-using behaviour, looking at the individual, societal and whole-system perspective of energy use. Many global experts participate and help unravel these complexities in order to access the large end-user behaviour change potential for DSM programmes (estimated to be in the range of >30%). Once the ‘loop’ between different ‘Behaviour Changers’ (researchers, funders, policymakers, DSM implementers, and energy end users) is closed will this potential be more likely to be realised in practice.
The current pace of change within the electricity supply industry worldwide is unprecedented. The wide ranging measures being implemented to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gas emissions, particularly the wide-scale deployment of time variable renewable generation, presents a number of challenges in relation to the balance of supply and demand. No longer is it considered viable for electricity to be provided ‘on demand’ in response to the requirements of end-users. Rather, a co-ordinated approach is required whereby energy production and demand are integrated to ensure the use of renewables can be optimised whilst also minimising the use fossil fired generation and network infrastructure investment. Such an approach is the essence of the Smart Grid concept.
Whilst there is considerable focus on the technological aspects of delivering Smart Grids, little is understood of the extent to which consumers are willing to embrace new technologies and initiatives that enable their use of energy to be actively managed. There is a real risk that if customers do not adopt new approaches to the way that they consume electricity, Smart Grids may not be able to achieve their full potential
Therefore, this Task was set up to focus on investigating the role of consumers in delivering effective Smart Grids.
The primary objective of IEA DSM Task 22, Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standards, was to develop a best practice guide for the design, development, implementation and monitoring of Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standards (EEPS).
Experts from countries with EEPS programmes and countries planning to introduce EEPS programme participated. Participation in the Task helped countries review their programmes beyond any existing boundaries and consider a broader approach. Experts also analysed inter-linkages between EEPS schemes and other schemes, such as energy efficiency, renewable energy and emissions trading.
During the period 2009-2014, Task 21 researched options for harmonising energy savings calculations, contributed to easier comparisons of international energy savings and researched next steps to further harmonise energy savings calculations.
Task 20 built upon the results of IEA DSM Task 7: Market Transformation. While DSM Task 7 took the initial step towards developing a framework for market transformation, it was time to evolve a comprehensive framework that could be used by government and industry to develop the market for energy efficient products.
Task 19 investigated the implementation of TOU pricing, remote/automatic demand switching and energy end use monitoring for SME and residential customers so as to quantify the costs, benefits and business viability of such measures from the System Operator, Demand Balancing and energy saving perspectives.
Specific objectives of Task 19 were to: Define DR and Energy Saving products to meet System Operator, Supplier, Government and Customer requirements.
The fourth IPCC Working Group III Report “Mitigation of Climate Change” identified demand side management programs as a mechanism that may be effective in reducing emissions.
Task 18 investigated the potential contribution to mitigating GHG emissions that can be made by demand side management measures. Task 18 also examined the extent to which GHG emissions mitigation measures can provide benefits to electricity systems.
Task 15 on ‘Network-driven’ demand-side management (DSM) was concerned with reducing demand on electricity networks (grids) in specific ways which maintain system reliability in the immediate term and over the longer term defer the need for network augmentation.
Problems in electricity networks were becoming significant in countries where electricity demand was increasing and network infrastructure (‘poles and wires’) were ageing. As loads grow and infrastructure reaches the end of its economic life, the potential cost of augmenting and providing support services for electricity networks is increasing exponentially.
Task 15 identified and developed a wide range of DSM measures that can:
• relieve constraints on electricity distribution and/or transmission networks at lower costs than building ‘poles and wires’ solutions; and
• provide operational support services for electricity networks, achieving peak load reductions with various response times.
The objective of the Task 14 work was to gather experiences gained in operating White Certificates or White Certificates-like schemes in countries where this policy is or will be practiced (as in Great Britain, France and Italy) or discussed (as in the Netherlands). To complement these schemes, knowledge gained through focused research projects was also included.
Considering that relatively little experience involving the implementation of White Certificates schemes existed, the Task experts relied on themselves and those with expertise in subjects as diverse as tradable certificates theory, demand-side management policies in the residential, transport and tertiary sectors, and the existing British, Italian and French White Certificates schemes. The Task was organized around five workshops to discuss with national practitioners and explore a set of issues – expectations, policy/principle issues, organization/practical issues, and interaction with other trading schemes and with other EE policies.
The three main objectives of Task 13 work were to:
1) identify and develop the country-specific information needed to establish the potential for demand response,
2) perform the market and institutional assessment needed to set realistic goals for the contribution of DRR to sector objectives, and
3) mobilize technical and analytic resources needed to support the implementation of DRR programs and track their performance.
This Task has developed action-oriented tools that markets and regulators can use to incorporate DR in their daily operating practices. The tools are designed to provide methodologies and research resources to use when evaluating the best business case structure for DR in a market. All of the project tools are organized into the book, Task 13 Project Guidebook, which provides a roadmap for assessing DR integration into the market. In addition to the tools, the book can be used as a teaching guide for a DR professional certification programme.