The following projects are being developed currently. If you are interested in more information please contact the Vice Chairman, David Shipworth or contact the persons under each project.
As decarbonisation drives uptake of distributed energy systems with intermittent supply, the need for rapid demand side response increases. Without automation, markets will not be able to combine the benefits of DSM in energy management (wholesale markets) with the fast acting response needed to manage the changing physics of the network.
However if implemented poorly, automation can fail to provide whole energy system benefits and can disempower consumers, leading to low uptake of energy management systems in homes, offices and industry. In liberalized energy markets automation of DSR will be opt-in, and so must deliver customer value as well as network benefits.
This task proposes to collate global best practice, and identify key emerging research in social sciences, technology and policy to empower consumers and deliver network benefits. As automated DSR increases, governments and industry participants will need to ensure wider network, environment, and social benefits are met and with appropriate safety nets.
The energy industry is yet to develop a “Social Licence to Operate” DSM systems in an automated way that passes through the maximum value from utilities to customers. This Social Licence to Automate in the energy sector is an extremely difficult challenge for DSM and will require shared insights and lessons from around the world.
Global drivers: Decarbonisation leading to decentralised intermittent supply requiring demand side response in increasingly close to real-time.
DSM Strategy alignment: Focus on consumer empowerment and social equity in the design of hardware and algorithms providing automated DSR.
Cross-TCP linkages: ISGAM; 4E; EBC.
Who are the global leaders?: From start-ups to majors working in the home energy management and connected grid services spaces. Research organisations such as the UK Energy System Catapult; …
Why us? Global Regulatory focus and best practice promulgation
Why now?: Smart metering, IoT, Move to half-hourly pricing, rapid uptake of solar, etc
Which of us?: Aust.; UK; USA; DE; Canada; EU; China; …
Aim and objectives
- Create country profiles
- Industry/society readiness for automation of energy flexibility
- Regulatory, industry and societal context [e.g. profiling of the current state of the sector and identify required changes]
- Existing policy, regulatory or institutional interventions [e.g. documenting and evaluating contemporary examples ]
- Map major trials in each country [e.g. detailed case studies exploring the internal dynamics of how new practices are being supported, maintained and replicated]
- Energy literacy
- Investigate how policy makers, institutions and most importantly customers in various markets understand how energy markets work and how automated “energy flexibility” would be incorporated
- The Customer Algorithm
- Map customer needs for DSM automation Algorithms
- Compare existing tools to customer needs (based on peer-to-peer observatory
- Understand how technology can enable the Social Licence to Operate
- Share the similarities and differences between countries regarding the influences on above [e.g. opportunity for learning from others based on a different local, regional contexts etc]
- Country profiles on transition readiness and energy literacy regarding benefits of automated DSM
- Whole systems benefits: ‘Requirements reflection’ of energy system needs to consumers in ways they understand.
- Development of a common framework for creating a social license to operate for automated demand flexibility technology and regulations.
- Reports that capture above
- Recommendations and International insights to help guide policy, regulation and social innovation to enable automation of DSM services
Low carbon cooling
Introduction and context
Effective cooling is essential to preserve food and medicine. It underpins industry and economic growth, is key to sustainable urbanisation as well as providing a ladder out of rural poverty. With significant areas of the world projected to experience temperature rises that place them beyond those which humans can survive, cooling will increasingly make much of the world bearable – or even safe – to live in. Studies suggests that if climate change is not checked, significant parts of the world will suffer heatwaves beyond the limit of human survival by 2070.
Globally, we will demand far more cooling in the decades ahead. As one example, alongside the rapid growth in demand for comfort cooling, consumption of high nutrition foods in India is expected to touch half a billion tons by 2030; connecting the supply of such foods with consumers leaves only one healthy recourse – the ‘cold-chain’. In fact, over the next 30 years we are projected to see 19 cooling appliances (air conditioners, fridges, mobile refrigeration units, chilled display units in our shops) deployed somewhere in the world every second; by 2050, there could be more than 9.5 billion cooling appliances worldwide – more than 2.5 times today’s ~3.6 billion.
The environmental focus with regard to cooling equipment to-date has been largely on the issue of the impact of synthetic refrigerants on the Ozone Layer and Climate Change (Montreal Protocol, Kigali Amendment). However according to United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), more than 80% of the global climate impact of RACHP (Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps) systems is associated with the greenhouse gas emissions of the electricity generation required to power the cooling appliances.
We are seeing the incremental development of more efficiency cooling technologies. But the growth of artificial cooling will create massive demand for energy, as much as 9,500TWhs annually and, unless we can reduce our need for cooling and roll out solutions for clean and sustainable cooling provision, this will cause high levels of CO2 and pollution.
Under these projections, much of the world would still only have low penetration levels of cooling. We would still have high levels of food loss, a significant percentage of the world’s population in the hottest regions of the world without cooling, and medicines and vaccines spoiled in the supply chain. For example, even by 2050, AC and refrigeration equipment penetrations in parts of Asia and Africa will likely only be 10-20% of those experienced in the USA today.
A recently published analysis led by the University of Birmingham suggests that if we are to deliver access to cooling for all with no-one left behind, by 2050, the world could require 14 billion cooling appliances globally – four times as many as are in use today, and 4.5 billion more than current global projections for 2050. This would see the cooling sector consume up to 19,000TWh per annum; five times the amount of energy it does today.
The world must not solve a social crisis by creating an environmental catastrophe; we need to ensure access to affordable cooling with minimum environmental impact and maximum efficient use of natural and waste resources.
Analysis of a range of scenarios for future cooling demand indicates that anticipated equipment deployment and operations trajectories will result in a substantial growth in electricity demand, challenging supply infrastructure arrangements, and energy budgets for cooling provision, as implied by the GHG emissions reduction targets of the Paris Climate Change Agreement, being exceeded significantly.
To avoid this CO2 emissions outcome without radically reducing energy consumption would require very substantial expansions in the global capacity to generate electricity from renewable energy sources. Some of the increases in cooling capacity required may further shift the grid mix in affected countries to much higher penetrations of renewables than would otherwise be required. In the most extreme case a doubling of the currently anticipated renewable energy sourced generation capacity by 2050 could be needed, which would have enormous infrastructure cost implications.
Whilst existing initiatives to improve average levels of cooling device efficiency will go some way towards addressing this challenge , optimistic projections produced by the Green Cooling Initiative (an alliance of key players in the RAC sector and comprises government institutions, international organisations and the private sector), the most comprehensive data set available to date, suggest that a ~30% reduction may conceivably be possible for current commercial technologies but with significant cost implications. More radical interventions will be needed to keep energy demands from cooling equipment and systems within the energy budget implied by internationally agreed carbon allowances (Paris Climate Agreement).
These interventions are likely to necessarily include demand reduction by influencing consumer behaviour, as well as a range of clean cooling technologies and approaches, including amongst others taking a whole systems design approach to cooling loads; much greater use of district or community cooling to harness free cooling (such as bodies of water) or waste heat, use of thermal energy storage. It is likely that a significant amount of energy storage will be required to integrate and manage cooling demands with renewable resources and the deployment of more disruptive, energy efficient technologies.
Low carbon cooling necessarily must be accessible, affordable, financially sustainable, scalable, safe and reliable to help deliver our societal, economic and health goals. Market stakeholders have identified barriers to both behavioural change and cooling equipment uptake that relate to awareness, affordability, financing, culture/ consumer attitudes, policy priorities, electricity availability, technical capability and skills as well as national interest, lack of innovation and an inadequate evidence base.
- Aim and objectives
Low carbon cooling must start with what we can do today to reduce demand by influencing customer behaviour; from temperature settings for our air conditioning to more effective use of shade and natural ventilation in building design, painting roofs white and putting doors on chillers in supermarkets through to installing best-in-class refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment.
Equally, if cooling provision is to be sustainable and properly integrated renewable energy, we need not only more efficient air-conditioners and fridges, but also a fundamental overhaul of the way cooling is provided – a new needs-driven, system-level approach. This will necessitate the integrated development of energy resources, devices, systems and skilled people for deployment in key market sector environments. This in turn will in require new value and business models to be adopted, as well as end user take-up of disruptive solutions.
Research work has demonstrated the important influence that contextual issues such as individuals and organisational attitudes and behaviours, as well as cultural and market conditions and business models can have on the adoption of low carbon technologies and energy efficient practices both with regards to cooling as well as other sectors
Globally we have an aspiration to deliver a sustainable, low carbon and environmentally friendly economy. However, the current policy landscape governing the environmental impact of cooling is under-developed at both a supra-national and national level.
We have become profligate with cooling with little understanding of its energy and environmental cost. As we migrate from fossil fuels to renewables, we need to radically reshape the cooling landscape; combining technology, operations, financing, and consumer behaviour in a system perspective.
Although the enormous potential of cooling and refrigeration to help achieve energy targets for diversification, decarbonisation, efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions, the public and political awareness of these energy-intensive technologies is still insufficient. Most sectorial analyses spotlight heating, whereas cooling is mentioned just pro forma for linguistic symmetry.
- Key areas of research
We plan to look at methodologies and their barriers and incentives to
- Reduce cold load/cooling work required by demand reduction – doors on supermarkets, building design, temperature settings for air conditioning; capex is the primary determiner of technology choice rather than energy efficiency and whole of life cost
- Reduce the energy required for cooling: getting consumers to adopt high efficiency cooling technologies and where appropriate manage the rebound effect (see note below)
- Role of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and data to better manage cooling systems and drive maintenance to deliver performance.
- District and community system level thinking across built environment and transport and the role of thermal energy storage.
The rebound effect – one behavioural consideration is the need to take into account unmet or “latent demand” for thermal comfort, such that improvements in energy efficiency from better equipment that may result in greater use of air conditioning and consequently less-than-expected reductions in electricity requirements. A programme in Mexico between 2009 and 2012 encouraged replacement of inefficient refrigerators and air conditioners more than 10 years old through rebates and consumer financing. While the programme successfully replaced 167,000 ACs, a rebound effect led to increased energy consumption and higher energy bills for people, as the lower hourly operating costs encouraged increased operating hours, reflecting unmet demand for comfort. Unintended consequences of programmes like these will need to be anticipated and accurately assessed and mitigated for when considering costs and benefits.
Some key areas we shall explore include:
- purchasing decisions (price vs efficiency);
- wrong specification;
- building design practices;
- maintenance in commercial environments;
- operating practices (in domestic environments) e.g. defrosting, whether food that is in refrigerators needs to be refrigerated etc;
- operating practices (in commercial environments) e.g. set points, not using night blinds, leaving drinks fridges on overnight, cooling offices that no one is sitting in, poorly set up BMSs etc;
- customer responses in retail environments (e.g. fridge doors);
- use of sensors and data;
- thermal storage.
- Given the global growth of cooling but also the different needs, cooling priorities, energy systems and challenges of different countries and markets, we would propose looking at a spread of countries. This would allow us to define the specific priorities, barriers and drivers, with case studies, within three or four markets, and to identify any common themes.
- Research will include a combination of literature reviews, investigative research, workshops / marketing testing.
- A PESTLE analysis framework will be used (political, economic, social, technological, legal, environmental) to analyse and monitor the factors that are likely to facilitate or create barriers to demand-side management.
Sub-task 0 Set-up of the task and administrative aspects
Engage research team;
Define the vision, scope, objectives, schedule and resource budget;
Administrative and management activities to provide oversight of the programme’s activities, progress, quality, risks and accomplishments;
Ensure periodic reporting as agreed with the ExCo.
Sub-task 1 Literature review
Review of relevant literature and research to quantify and score the key demand-side management initiatives against a key matrix of targets – cost, time, energy impact and perceived barriers – across a range of countries and markets.
Review of relevant literature and research as it relates to behaviours, socio-technical transitions and organisational responsiveness to the adoption of renewable energy and other low carbon and energy efficient technologies and practices, especially where relevant to the cooling sector.
Sub-task 2 Investigate research – case studies
Based on defined areas of impact on energy consumption for cooling, review (including in-depth interviews with key stakeholders) a spectrum of specific cooling projects (demand reduction and new technology deployment) across a range of applications and markets to understand uptake successes and failings as they relate to behaviour and socio-technical transitions and organisational responsiveness to the adoption.
Sub-task 3 Energy profiles and national polices –
The potential deployment trajectory of technology will be heavily dependent on the evolution of the energy system and policies with the increasing penetration of variable renewables, tightening of emissions and introduction of other new demand-side technologies (such as electric vehicles). We will assess the policy and regulatory barriers that could prevent the technology from being deployed cross referencing the case studies with an analysis of national energy supply profiles, pricing and carbon footprints; installed renewable energy supply and capacity and renewable energy economic, regulatory and policy drivers. We will focus on analysis of the three countries but look to how representative other countries may be similar to, or different from, these case studies.
Sub-task 4 Industry engagement
Cross-reference the case studies with a cross-section of industry innovators (OEMS/Tier 1/Tier 2s and start-ups) to understand their perceived barriers or drivers for uptake.
Sub-task 5 Develop and evaluate alternative business strategies and polices
Consider concepts aimed at overcoming contextual barriers and increasing uptake of demand side reduction measures, initiatives or programmes.
Sub-task 6 Market test alternative business strategies and policies
Workshop events in each participating project country will be used to engage a wider set of stakeholders from our findings.
Sub-task 7 Knowledge transfer
Identify optimal means directly and through third parties to disseminate outputs; to include conferences, academic paper and report.
- Expected results
The deliverables of this research project are expected to be
- cost-impact analysis of when and where demand-side management (behavioural change as well as technology) would be most valuable at the energy system level to lower carbon intensity in a number of different countries and markets;
- identify non-technical barriers, incentives/enablers to behavioural and technological change to low carbon cooling solutions which can then inform the development of strategies designed both to remove or overcome the blockages and encourage and diffuse helpful practices;
- examine the role that alternative business strategies and models have to play in delivering transformative technology and behavioural change and in increasing its market uptake;
- define policies build awareness for, stimulate and properly reward low carbon cooling, both in (i) reducing our demand for cooling and (ii) adopting more efficient or radical technologies.
The project will also provide an informed platform to better analyse national and local policies in cooling specifically including
- The interconnection of cooling in energy, industry and transport, and the role governments can play in promoting renewable and free/waste energy for cooling demands within that system.
- The policies required to enable successful uptake of thermal energy storage and ‘cold and power’ technologies, as enablers of an increasingly decarbonised energy grid.
In support demand-side management strategies to decarbonising cooling as a key part of climate change mitigation, it will also support:
- Building a knowledge based economy and green talent for cooling
- Advancing economic diversification through innovation
- Evidence based cost-impact analysis of demand-side interventions to help deliver low carbon cooling;
- Report on the incentives and barriers to uptake;
- Alternative business strategies and models;
- Policy recommendations;
- Dissemination materials;
- Conference at University of Birmingham.
 To reference data in this note please see www.birmingham.ac.uk/Documents/college-eps/energy/Publications/2018-clean-cold-report.pdf
DSM Task 17 Integration of Demand Side Management, Energy Efficiency, Distributed Generation and Storage – Phase 4 – Responsive prosumer networks
Phase 3 of Task 17, regarding applying DG-RES, DR and storage in electricity grids, came with a set of conclusions and recommendations . These pertain to new business models and roles of actors in a re-regulated electricity value chain, new tariff structures and transaction mechanisms and new ICT technology options, which facilitate user and actor awareness of energy and electricity use.
The Paris treaty regarding reducing worldwide emission of greenhouse gases has accelerated the energy transition. The transition follows the “trias energetica” with first an increase of energy efficiency, moving to renewable generation and reducing emission for fossil fuels as the third option. The energy transition is also reflected by the European commission in November 2016 leading to the “winter package’’ of recommendations and directives for energy . The window of opportunity for applying smaller scale resources (from the small commercial and end-customer segment) in the energy system can be seen to become wider in the near future although the existing grid accommodation capacity in some areas reaches its limit. Traditional retail and commercial consumers are in an evolution process to ‘prosumers’ and traditional electricity commodity retailers have to provide additional services in new business models to survive.
Phases 1-3 of task 17 have collected a valuable amount of information on technologies important for the current energy transition. Key energy transition components as demand response, distributed generation and storage technologies have been extensively analyzed and assessed from a technological perspective as well as from the perspective of operational or commercial electricity market usage in the grid. Cost/benefit models have been analyzed in several national contexts. However in all phases, it also was observed, only a part of the technical and economic potential can be uncovered. An acceleration is desired in line with the points addressed in the conclusion as to uncovering the full potential of demand side flexibility.
In the past five years Smart Cities concepts have been attributed a key role bringing together information and communication technology, urban planning and operation, optimization of energy and E-mobility related applications like comfort and energy management in buildings and mobility , . Information and communication technologies increase aggregation possibilities and low-cost of IoT connected devices increase integration and valuation of the energy process information in the total system. On international and national levels, research programs have been defined and the first pilot projects already have been concluded. This development fits in key concepts in further uncovering the individual flexibility potential and to more powerful aggregation mechanisms and energy consumption/generation process integration levels, that can be validated and verified in the same way as large production facilities and or industrial DR resources.
Furthermore, transactive energy systems as a facilitator of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) trading between prosumers and consumers are coming-up as are the platforms for value-exchange without intermediary partners like blockchains.
Phase 4 in Task 17 builds further on the conclusions and recommendations of the previous phases and places them in an extended network perspective viz.
- The electricity system operational and commercial market network context.
- The community aggregation and ICT network context
- The prosumer/supplier/buyer transaction network context
In this project, valuation of aggregation mechanisms of small and intermediate scale PV systems, electric vehicles, electric and heat storage systems, heat pumps, micro-CHP in combination with energy management systems and first and second generation smart meters for implementing new transaction and tariff models will be assessed. Besides, the existing experience base of conducted and ongoing pilot projects that combine these aspects will be extended and analyzed. The application and realization of finalized projects in participating countries with respect to the specific regional differences and requirements are placed in focus.
The October 2016 ExCo-meeting strategic discussion in the DSM-program did yield a clear requirement for an interdisciplinary approach between technological and behavioral scientists in an innovation eco-system context. Task 17 Phase 4 will try to follow this in the DSM-program portfolio by considering three aspects:
- Responsive here reflects pro-activity and reactivity of the technological energy producing or consuming end-nodes but also of the (aggregated) users in providing responsiveness to different types of stakeholder requests in the energy commercial system and physical infrastructure.
- Prosumer, here, reflects part of the energy transition viz. the increased and, from a grid stability perspective, possibly disruptive production capabilities of small dispersed producers and also the increasing use of the electricity grid due to the increased electrification with HVAC (heat pumps) and electric mobility (EVs).
- The scope of networks considers the role of the physical grid, the aggregator and the, mostly rural, community/smart city dimension. Physical aggregation as well as virtual aggregation are considered.
The following subtasks further structure the activities to handle this emerging DG-RES and demand side challenge:
Subtask 14: Context analysis, use cases and SmartCity pilot positioning
Subtask 15: Metering, monitoring and coordination methods required to increase prosumer responsiveness
Subtask 16: Coupling to innovative user feedback, billing and transactive energy schemes
Subtask 17: Conclusions and recommendations
Phase 4 Subtasks
Subtask 14. Context analysis, use cases and Smart City pilot positioning
In modern societies, digitalization of all kinds of processes takes place at an increasing pace. This also holds for the electricity sector. Commercial value creation can be achieved with an increasing penetration level of small-scale energy monitoring. Also at the management and control level, using connectivity of customers to the mainstream Internet, possibilities increase. Communicating, smart, meters generate power and energy measurements with 10 second and 15-minute resolution, which can be used for local and global commercial optimization. The potential of this metering infrastructure is only partially used.
Instrumentation of MV (Medium Voltage) grids allows more granular grid operation, based more and more on near real-time monitoring of data originating from lower voltage levels in the grid. To keep the electricity grid stable and allowing higher DG penetration levels, traditional SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) systems used for monitoring and control in DSO (Distribution System Operator) control centers are gradually extending their scope from the primary substation level (serving some 50000 customers) to the secondary substation level (1000 customers) and even the LV-transformer level (50 customers).
A key role in this transition is attributed to electricity flexibility and flexibility aggregation. ICT enables flexible aggregation topologies. Apart from self-consumption as an option, aggregation, in this sense, may be done (simultaneously) on the locational level, confined to a certain area, or on the global level, sharing certain optimization objectives like commercial portfolio optimization in the market or pairing renewable production and consumption in communities.
These technologies cannot be massively rolled out in one step. Pilot tests with Virtual Power Plants (VPPs), originally started 10-15 years ago within contexts of up to 50 to 100 customers. Scaling up at this moment takes place especially in Smart City contexts with support from EU research programs and national initiatives. Smart City concepts also stress the importance of integrating information and energy streams and also designs and layouts of physical grids in the context of DG-RES and energy storage embedding
Subtask 15 – Metering, monitoring and coordination methods required to increase prosumer responsiveness
An important conclusion of the work in Task 17 Phase 3 was, that end-user tariff components only have a distant link to the impact of the consumption and production of electricity of the electricity system as a whole. The electricity market cost mapping mostly is calculated from synthetic profiles derived from a averaged set of electricity consumers or producers. In this way, end-user demand response actions, that generate flexibility, cannot be rewarded on an individual basis. Reconciliation using real measured profiles, based on the smart meter readings, makes it possible to map this price component more precisely on the actual power profile of the customer. In a number of countries, experiences with these types of reconciliation already exist.
For the transport and distribution components of the end-user electricity price also a similar mapping mismatch of real cost to tariffs occurs. Asset recovery based tariffs like connection capacity fees are common. Also tariffs, based on the maximum capacity used in a certain period, also hardly form a suitable component for rewarding end-user demand response. Distribution grids, previously having a one-design-fits-all-principle, with the current increased electrification of energy streams, are becoming more-and-more diverse. Functionality ranges from extended residential areas with high penetration of heat pumps to cities with large capacity requirements for (fast) charging of EVs. These changes require distribution tariffs with better opportunities to reward ‘’grid-friendly’’ user behavior.
A third electricity price component is government energy taxes and subsidies. Several tax levying and subsidy schemes exist on the electricity commodity. At some occasions renewable in-feed comes to saturation limits. On the market level, subsidized priority in-feed of wind energy can lead to lower day-ahead prices that reduce the allocated amount of low-CO2 fossil generators, Also, curtailment schemes for PV, needed for grid stability, are complex to implement due to loss of accompanying subsidies. In some cases this component has a different and even opposite effect in achieving the original, desired target. Priority in-feed of wind and net metering of PV need alternatives to reach their original objectives.
A considerable part of the increase of flexibility delivery will take place via automated controls operated via “soft” coordination algorithms and techniques (e.g. openADR) also establishing and maintaining the virtual power plant objectives and connections. The interaction of these information architectures with possible tariff scheme component modifications has to determined and evaluated.
Subtask 16 – Coupling to innovative user feedback, billing and transactive energy schemes
In the small commercial and end customer energy sector, depending on the volumes, financial transactions and accounting take place with monthly or in most cases yearly intervals. This creates a large feedback time. Currently, energy management apps on smart phones, in combination with smart meters allow instant, day-to-day feedback on energy usage. Currently these systems do not allow transforming this information into financial transactions. The Gridwise alliance, a consortium of energy service providers and technology developers in the US, has defined a transactive energy framework, that aims to split large overall transactions between stakeholders in commercial and grid operation into micro-transactions. The scheme enables multiple parallel transactions between actors in the electricity system to reconcile portfolio and grid management operations and services. In the Netherlands, the USEF (the Universal Smart Energy business Framework) consortium was designed a reference implementation, which is currently tested in the field. During the past years also block-chain based transactie energy models have been proposed. These allow more accurate mapping of liabilities and responsibilities of actors involved in electricity distribution and transactive schemes. The first of these scheme designs are currently in the testing phase. These schemes are expected have a large impact on small-scale renewable energy systems. In this task this translation, paralleling transaction schemes in the B2B-sector, are inventoried and assessed.
Subtask 17 – Conclusions and Recommendations
Conclusions and recommendations will be arrived at in close interaction with the experts’ opinions and will at least provide a ranking based on impacts, costs and likely future penetration of suggested frameworks.
Collaboration and Dissemination
Collaboration with internal and external activities in the field will be continued.
IEEE-Standards Association, IEC and Cenelec
OAs currently are within the IEEE- IEC- and Cenelec Standards Association Industry Connections.
This Task considers the end-user view of ICT technology and smart meters in energy grids. Synergy is to be expected with ISGAN TCPs 2 (SmartGrid case studies) and 7 (SmartGrid transitions), which consider the political considerations and strategies. Good connections already exist as one of the Task 17 phase 3 OAs is the Austrian representative for ISGAN in TCP 2. These connections will be further extended and possibilities for joint dissemination events will be actively pursued.
National Stakeholder Groups
An essential pre-requisite is national dissemination of project results. Per participating organization stakeholders resonance platforms are active checked upon.
Other IEA-DSM Tasks
Task 16 Innovative energy services
Task 23 The Role of Customers in Delivering Effective Smart Grids
Task 24 Closing the Loop – Behaviour Change in DSM: from theory to policies and practice
Task 25 Business models for a more effective market
Contact for more information firstname.lastname@example.org