Task 24 Phase II: Behaviour Change in DSM – Helping the Behaviour Changers

Synopsis

Phase II of Task 24 takes the theory into practice. Building on the solid theoretical foundations of Phase I, we now look at the:

  • What?
  • Who?
  • How?
  • Why? and
  • So What?

We use a Collective Impact Approach methodology and storytelling as the overarching language and bring together Behaviour Changers from all sectors (industry, government, research, middle actors and the third sector) with the end users whose behaviour they are ultimately trying to change.


Background

The results from Task 24 (both the theoretical analysis of case studies and in-depth communication and surveys with our many experts) led us to conclude that the reason why energy efficiency is still ‘the greatest market failure of our time’ is because most current approaches are still based on a rather technocratic understanding of energy end user behaviour – with technology, market forces or energy supply dictating interventions geared at behaviour change. We have made a start with presenting this conclusion using storytelling in its many forms. Responses so far were very positive as our stories enabled people (e.g. policymakers) with no background in behavioural sciences to understand how different social science approaches towards behaviour change will have different outcomes.

There are now two things that we need to take a step further:
• We need to elaborate our empiricial knowledge base (elaborate on what, who, why, how?)
• We need to strengthen and support the community of experts into co-creating improved interventions, using storytelling and a collective impact approach as process tools to overcome language barriers, inherent systemic barriers and silos.

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Introduction

We pose that a better understanding of the human aspect of energy use, including behavioural and societal drivers and barriers and external and internal contexts, will greatly improve the uptake of energy efficiency and DSM policies and programmes. This is not at all to say that technology, market and business models and energy supply are not hugely important aspects of the Energy System. Instead, we pose that the Energy System begins and ends with the human need for the services derived from energy (warmth, comfort, entertainment, mobility, hygiene, safety etc) and that behavioural interventions using technology, market and business models and changes to supply and delivery of energy are the all-important means to that end.

We have created a different ‘model of understanding’ (based on work from Task 24 to date) of the energy system and its actors that offers a pragmatic approach for how we propose to further improve the co-creation of knowledge, learning, sharing and translation into practice among practitioners in the energy field.

The way the Energy System is currently established (see Figure 1), does not easily permit such a whole-system view which puts human needs, behaviours and (ir)rationalities at the center of interventions geared at system change.

Old view of energy system

Instead, if we look at the Energy System through the human lens (see video below), we can see that it isn’t necessarily this top-down/left-right linear relationship starting with supply and ending with the end user, but rather a circular relationship which actually starts with the end user need for an energy service (watch below for a short presentation explaining this in more detail).

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Methodology

The Behaviour Changer Framework

In order to visualise the Energy System through the ‘human’, instead of the technocratic lens, we have created a so-called Behaviour Changer Framework (BCF) for Phase II (watch below a short presentation on it).

This Framework is meant to achieve several functions:

  • It is a collective impact tool (the process comes before the outcome)
  • It helps visualise the energy system through the human lens
  • It is a backcasting tool as it helps us imagine best practice (in the real world – our common goal) and describe the current status and what is needed in order to achieve best practice
  • It is a tool to help different stakeholders (Behaviour Changers) to think about the best possible scenario (ie one that is possible under the current system) and then collectively work on solving problems and co-create the right intervention to change this specific behaviour from current status to best practice
  • It also helps to evaluate and measure the path towards the best practice (via the specific intervention that was chosen, and the specific indices to measure success for each Behaviour Changer) and helps us re-iterate the intervention, where necessary
  • It helps identify multiple benefits and how to measure them
  • It helps us appreciate each others’ world, the lock-ins, restrictions, relationships both good and bad which the system throws up and which are often outside of our direct influence.

The Collective Impact Approach

In addition, we will use a Collective Impact Approach to facilitate the workshops with the different Behaviour Changers, providing the neutral, trusted and respected backbone support necessary to ensure open engagement.

Five_Conditions_Collective_Impact

Five conditions of Collective Impact based on Kania & Kramer (2011)

Storytelling

Storytelling will continue to be our overarching language and method of ‘translation’ between different sectors and disciplinary jargon. We will continue to explore the power of storytelling in its many forms, as outlined in our 2015 eceee summer study paper. Task 24 is also co-editing a Special Issue in Energy Research and Social Sciences called ‘Storytelling and narratives in energy and climate change research’. We have received over 50 abstracts from Behaviour Changers all over the world for this publication showing the huge interest on this topic. Task 24 will also be published in this issue, discussing the usefulness of a simple story spine. We have also created an ‘A-Z of storytelling’ report which will be published soon.

land of make believe

The ‘Land of Make Believe’ based on a 1930s poster by Jaro Hess

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Objectives

The main objective of this Task is to take good theory into practice to allow Behaviour Changers (from government, industry, intermediaries, research and the third sector) to:

  • Engage in an international expert network (‘THE EXPERTS’)
  • Develop the top 3 DSM priorities to identify the most (politically, technologically, economically and societally) appropriate DSM themes to focus on (‘THE ISSUES’)
  • Identify and engage countries’ networks in the 5 Behaviour Changers sectors for at least one of the top 3 DSM themes to co-create their Behaviour Changer Framework to collectively work on this problem (‘THE PEOPLE’)
  • Use and test a Collective Impact Approach to develop shared methodologies, guidelines and a common ‘language’ based on narratives to aid Behaviour Changers’ decisionmaking of how to choose the best models of understanding behaviour and theories of change and how to best measure the many multiple benefits of energy efficiency and DSM (‘THE TOOLS’)
  • Standardise how to evaluate behaviour change programmes ‘Beyond kWh’ and ‘Beyond Energy’ including multiple benefits analysis (‘THE MEASURE’)
  • Collate national learnings into an overarching (international) story to understand, compare and contrast the different behaviour change approaches, risks and opportunities and which recommendations can be universally applied (‘THE STORY’)

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Benefits for participants

Phase II of Task 24 has very direct benefits to participating (funding) countries and we are still open for interested countries to participate (contact drsea@orcon.net.nz for details). Experts from participating countries will have:

Opportunities for Global Networking and Collaboration

  • Become part of the invite-only International Expert Platform (>230 experts and counting) with Behaviour Changers from all sectors (Industry, Government, Research, Intermediaries and the Third Sector). This includes gaining better connections to the all-important middle actors (Intermediaries) who have direct access to energy end users;
  • Bring their own DSM issues to the table and collaborate with engaged Behaviour Changers from all sectors who are working on these specific issues;
  • Gain improved political buy-in for their countries’ policy development, through coordination with the IEA Secretariat and other international bodies interested in the Task (eg G20, Horizon 2020, eceee, BECC…);
  • Gain access to, and participate in the IEA DSM University including developing and disseminating their case studies and country findings in promoted webinars.

Access to Cutting-Edge Tools and Resources

  • Gain improved knowledge and understanding on  what different models and theories of behaviour change are available and when and how to best use them in practice;
  • Learn from and share, directly and via the Task 24 network, best practice case studies and stories;
  • Gain great, practical examples of how to use storytelling in policy and practice;
  • Get in-depth help with specific interventions, including the development and evaluation of field research pilots and demonstrations;
  • Take part in showcasing and testing the feasibility and effectiveness of the Collective Impact Approach in practice;
  • Inform, test and receive tools to monitor, evaluate and prove ongoing success of behaviour change outcomes ‘beyond kWh’ (includes a psychometrically-validated data collection tool, co-funded by US utilities to the tune of almost $100,000), and  how to monitor impacts ‘beyond energy’ (ie multiple benefit analysis, includes contributing to another IEA Task).

Co-creation and Promotion of New Solutions to Old Problems

  • Be part of global dissemination, promotion and publicity activities for Task 24 and their own organisations/countries;
  • Be invited to collaborate on joint publications on behaviour change in DSM including, but not limited to: in a special edition in a peer-reviewed journal and/or an IEA publication and an international Task 24 conference;
  • Re-frame the big issues together, like how better understand and engage the ‘human’ aspect of the energy system and how to overcome inherent systemic restrictions and conflicts, nationally and internationally;
  • Be part of co-creating the Behaviour Changer Framework, using a Collective Impact Approach and Storytelling as overarching methodologies;
  • Reduce duplication by learning from real-life field research so we can move from individualistic, programme-level approaches to collaborations aimed at the common goal of achieving systemic, societal changes with collective end-user participation at its core.

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Subtasks

 

The Logical Progression of Subtasks

Like Phase I, which followed the logical order of behaviour change intervention phases (Design – Implementation – Evaluation – (Re)Iteration – Dissemination), Phase II also follows a logical order:

  • SUBTASK 0 (Task Administration) and SUBTASK 5 (The Experts) will continue throughout Phase II
  • SUBTASK 6 (The Issues) will concentrate firmly on the WHAT? – building on work from ST 2 and 4 it will look at current lists of top DSM issues in each country; chose 3 to investigate in more depth; and one end user sector and specific behaviour to concentrate on in ST7
  • SUBTASK 7 (The People) will identify the WHO? – the most appropriate Behaviour Changers who need to collaborate, using the Behaviour Changer Framework and a Collective Impact Approach, on solving the issue identified in ST6
  • SUBTASK 8 (The Tools) will look at the HOW? – creating a practical toolbox of interventions including the many different methods and results identified and developed in Task 24, including practical tools of how to conduct a multiple benefit analysis using double-loop learning
  • SUBTASK 9 (The Measure) – the WHY? – will create an psychometrically-validated standard tool of how to collect behavioural data to identify impact and success of a behavioural intervention – ‘beyond kWh’
  • SUBTASK 10 (The Story) will look at the SO WHAT? – or what the global learnings and recommendations are from this Phase, and which are unique to their individual domains, behaviours and country contexts.

Fig. Workflow of Phase II and how it fits with Phase I

 

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Deliverables

Deliverables Phase II

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Publications

This is where the Task 24 Phase II publications reside, starting with the most important one: the Work Plan.

Task 24 – Phase II: Work Plan

Also important is the call for papers for a special edition in Energy Research and Social Sciences on ‘Storytelling and narratives in energy and climate change research’ which we are co-editing. We have received over 50 high-quality abstracts!

Subtask publications (not highlighted are reports for National Expert use only or yet-unpublished reports):

Subtask 6&7 – Draft Report Netherlands

Subtask 6&7 – Draft Report New Zealand

Subtask 6&7 – Draft Report Sweden

Subtask 6&7 – Draft Report Ireland

Subtask 6&7 – Draft Report Austria

Subtask 8 – How to Create a ‘Magic Carpet’ for Behaviour Changers

Subtask 8 – “The A to Z of Storytelling in Task 24″ (to be published)

Subtask 9 – ‘Dimensions of Energy Behavior: Psychometric Testing of Scales for Evaluating Behavioral Interventions in Demand Side Management Programs

Peer-reviewed publications:

Subtask 8 – “ONCE UPON A TIME…” ELICITING POWERFUL ENERGY AND BEHAVIOUR CHANGE STORIES USING A SIMPLE STORY SPINE (to be published in Energy Research and Social Sciences)

Subtask 8 – HOW MAGIC CARPETS, MONSTERS, HORROR AND LOVE STORIES CAME TO DEFINE A GLOBAL RESEARCH PROGRAMME ON ENERGY BEHAVIOUR (under review in Special Issue in Energy Efficiency)

Subtask 9 – IEPEC ‘Beyond kWh Scoping Paper

Subtask 9 – IEPEC ‘Exploring Deep Savings: A Toolkit for Assessing Behavior-Based Energy Interventions

Subtask 9 – IEPEC ‘Evaluating Energy Culture: Identifying and validating measures for behaviour-based energy interventions

ACEEE Summer Study ‘How to Create a ‘Magic Carpet’ for Behaviour Change

BEHAVE ‘How to Create a ‘Magic Carpet’ for Behaviour Changers

ECEEE Summer Study ‘Task 24: Co-creating behaviour change insights with Behaviour Changers from around the world” (to be published June 2017)

ECEEE Summer Study “Advances in green leases and green leasing: Evidence from Sweden, Australia, and the UK” (to be published June 2017)

Workshop Minutes (for National Experts only):

Subtask 6 and 7 – BECC conference Task 24 workshop minutes

Subtask 6 and 7 – BEHAVE conference Task 24 workshop minutes

Subtask 6 and 7 – Canada Workshop Notes

Subtask 6 and 7 – Sweden workshop minutes

Subtask 6 and 7 – Ireland workshop minutes

Subtask 6 and 7 – Netherlands workshop minutes

Subtask 6 and 7 – New Zealand workshop minutes

Subtask 6 and 7 – Carolinas Health Services workshop minutes (USA)

Subtasks 6 and 7 – Combined workshop minutes

Articles, blogs, Spotlight etc:

Task 24 – Phase II Flyer

Spotlight September 2015 – Task 24: Helping the Behaviour Changers

Spotlight December 2015: New Publication – Task 24 Subtask 2: The ‘Energy Hunt’ in Austria

Spotlight June 2016 – Task 24 and Annex 66: A beautiful collaboration is emerging

Spotlight March 2017 – Task 24: Creating ‘Magic’ with non-state actors

Energy News – Energy Projects need to center on End Users

ExCo Updates (private):

46th ExCo Meeting Status Update, Halifax October 2015

47th ExCo Meeting Status Update, Stockholm March 2016

48th ExCo Meeting Status Update, Brussels October 2016

49th ExCo Meeting Status Update, Dublin May 2017 (to be finalised)

Annual Reports:

Task 24 – 5th Annual Report (2015)

Task 24 – 6th Annual Report (2016)

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Countries and Contacts

NZ flag New Zealand

Operating Agent: Dr Sea Rotmann, drsea@orcon.net.nz

National Expert: Dr Sea Rotmann

NL The Netherlands

Project Partner: Dr Ruth Mourik, ruth.mourik@duneworks.nl

National Expert: Antoinet Smits, antoinet.smits@rvo.nl

Sweden Flag Sweden

National Expert: Sandra Lennander, sandra.lennander@energimyndigheten.se

Mehmet Bulut, Mehmet.Bulut@energimyndigheten.se

Austria flag Austria

National Expert: Teresa Kallsperger, kallsperger@grazer-ea.at

Ireland flagIreland

National Expert: Josephine Maguire, Josephine.Maguire@seai.ie

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